Consentimiento previo libre e informado en el contexto de proyectos extractivos en territorio indígena ¿regla general y derecho consuetudinario internacional?

Cristóbal Carmona Caldera

Resumo


En el contexto de proyectos extractivos en territorio indígena en América Latina, el Consentimiento, Libre, Previo e Informado (CLPI) supone una salvaguarda relevante para la protección de los derechos de los pueblos indígenas. Sin embargo, como muestra actualmente la práctica en América Latina, su significado es objeto de disputa sobre cuestiones claves, como cuándo procede o cuál es su estatus en el derecho internacional. En este contexto, el objetivo de este articulo es analizar dos respuestas que se han dado en doctrina a dichas interrogantes: la primera, es la que señala que el CLPI procede siempre que se pretenda instalar un proyecto en tierras de propiedad indígena, con independencia de la magnitud de impactos que genere; la segunda, es la que argumenta que el CLPI habría “cristalizado” ya en una norma de derecho consuetudinario internacional. Con todo, un análisis detenido de ambas argumentaciones revela graves problemas no solo con el uso de fuentes, sino relacionado a inconsistencias internas en su estructura, lo que, se sostendrá, impide que puedan ser consideradas jurídicamente plausibles. Este resultado permitirá contribuir a la clarificación de los conceptos principales del CLPI, al mismo tiempo que pondrá sobre la palestra la relativa (in)utilidad que tiene para la protección de los derechos de los pueblos indígenas, el perseverar en interpretaciones que dejen fuera la voluntad estatal.

Palavras-chave


Consentimiento Libre Previo e Informado; Pueblos Indígenas; Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5102/rbpp.v9i3.6468

ISSN 2179-8338 (impresso) - ISSN 2236-1677 (on-line)

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