Desvio de caráter ou simplesmente humano? Economia comportamental aplicada ao comportamento desonesto

Diana Orghian, Gabriel Cabral, Andre Pinto, Alessandra Fontana

Resumo


Neste artigo, apresentamos uma abordagem de combate à corrupção e ao comportamento desonesto baseada na economia comportamental, psicologia cognitiva e psicologia social. A economia comportamental tem sido extensivamente aplicada à criação de políticas eficazes de alteração de comportamentos na área da saúde e educação, sendo, a aplicação ao combate à corrupção uma área ainda incipiente. Neste artigo, tendo por base uma revisão da literatura científica sobre o comportamento desonesto, demonstramos que as pessoas nem sempre agem de forma racional, coerente e previsível e nem sempre incorporam análises de custo-benefício nas suas decisões, tal como é previsto pelos modelos econômicos tradicionais. Também demonstramos que existem fatores inconscientes e mais sutis que podem estar contribuindo para o comportamento desonesto. Estes fatores são: i) a cognição humana e os vieses que afetam a tomada de decisão (racionalização motivada, licença moral, dissonância cognitiva etc.); ii) as características do contexto que nos podem influenciar em direção a determinado comportamento desonesto (ambiguidade nos procedimentos, falta de clareza, distância psicológica em relação ao dinheiro etc.); iii) os fatores sociais que decorrem da interação com as outras pessoas (reciprocidade, difusão da responsabilidade, normas sociais etc.). Uma vez conhecidos estes fatores, um rol de intervenções pode ser sugerido para conduzir as pessoas a agirem de forma mais honesta. Este artigo é direcionado a atores do setor público e privado interessados na temática do combate à corrupção e tem dois objetivos: i) descrever os fatores psicológicos que influenciam o comportamento desonesto e ii) apresentar soluções de fácil implementação e baixo custo (nudges), que podem ser integradas nas políticas de integridade e combate à corrupção.

Palavras-chave


economia comportamental, heurísticas, desonestidade, nudge

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Referências


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5102/rbpp.v8i2.5342

ISSN 2179-8338 (impresso) - ISSN 2236-1677 (on-line)

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