Cérebros que punem: uma revisão crítica da neurociência da punição

Ricardo Lins Horta

Resumo


Os profissionais envolvidos com o sistema penal rotineiramente tomam decisões sobre a culpabilidade e a punibilidade de transgressores. O comportamento de punir um ofensor tem sido estudado por psicólogos e neurocientistas, que buscam compreender quais as motivações subjacentes ao ato de punir, bem como quais as estruturas cerebrais envolvidas no processamento de informações sobre a intencionalidade e gravidade de uma ofensa. Estudos recentes apontam que a decisão de punir envolve áreas cerebrais específicas, cuja origem estaria ligada à necessidade, no contexto de evolução da espécie, de estabilizar a cooperação em grupos, por intermédio do reforço das normas sociais mediante a aplicação de sanções. Neste artigo, buscamos fazer uma revisão crítica dessa literatura, apontando que, apesar da importância dos estudos da chamada Neurociência da Punição, os pressupostos por eles adotados ainda são discutíveis, do ponto de vista da biologia evolucionista e da neurociência cognitiva.

Palavras-chave


Neurodireito; Psicologia da Punição; Teorias da Pena; Retributivismo

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Referências


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5102/rbpp.v8i2.5321

ISSN 2179-8338 (impresso) - ISSN 2236-1677 (on-line)

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