Delinquência juvenil: relações entre desenvolvimento, funções executivas e comportamento social na adolescência

André Vilela Komatsu, Rafaelle CS Costa, Marina Rezende Bazon

Resumo


Funções Executivas (FEs) são processos mentais de ordem superior, necessários para o controle emocional, cognitivo e comportamental. A adolescência é uma etapa crucial para o desenvolvimento das FEs. Defasagens/Déficits nas funções dificultam/impossibilitam comportamentos sociais adequados e aumentam o risco para problemas de comportamento (dentre os quais a prática de delitos). O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os resultados de uma revisão integrativa do conhecimento científico produzido em torno das relações entre FEs e comportamento delituoso na adolescência e discutir as implicações disso para programas de prevenção e tratamento/acompanhamento socioeducativo. A literatura aponta que as FEs podem se relacionar com o comportamento delituoso de forma indireta e direta. Indiretamente, disfunções executivas contribuem para a existência de dificuldades de ajustamento ao meio acadêmico e laboral, aumentando as chances de o adolescente se afastar dessas instituições sociais, de regulação da conduta, e se envolver com práticas divergentes. Diretamente, disfunções executivas, especialmente no plano do controle de impulsos, contribuem para a emissão de delitos específicos e para a violência. A literatura indica que as FEs podem ser estimuladas e desenvolvidas. Ações preventivas podem ser implementadas desde os primeiros meses de vida até à adolescência, no âmbito da família e da escola. Ações de tratamento devem focalizar as FEs mais diretamente relacionadas aos problemas manifestos e levar em consideração fatores contraproducentes ao desenvolvimento das FEs, como o estresse, o isolamento social/emocional e a saúde como um todo. Salienta-se que é necessário integrar esses conhecimentos às legislações e políticas públicas brasileiras.

Palavras-chave


Comportamento pró-social; Comportamento antissocial; Delinquência juvenil; Funções executivas; Psicologia do adolescente

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Referências


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5102/rbpp.v8i2.5289

ISSN 2179-8338 (impresso) - ISSN 2236-1677 (on-line)

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