Vinte Anos de Crise para a África? Poder, Assimetrias e a Abordagem Liberal da OMC

Igor Abdalla Medina de Souza

Resumo


O objetivo deste artigo é investigar a Organização Mundial do Comércio com base no conceito de poder institucional. Em contraposição à visão liberal de soma positiva das instituições criada desde os anos 1980 em referência ao GATT 1947, desdobra-se o poder institucional nas dimensões da mudança de fórum, poder de mercado e rolo compressor para argumentar-se que a OMC traz perdas absolutas para a África. Os acadêmicos liberais deixam de analisar as assimetrias da OMC e afirmam erroneamente que a natureza mais juridicizada do mecanismo de solução de controvérsias reduz o viés em favor dos países poderosos. As estimativas apontam que os países africanos sofrem perdas associadas a royalties e monopolização advindos da proteção à propriedade intelectual, decréscimos em termos de PIB, exportações e medidas de bem-estar econômico, bem como vultosos custos de ajuste e implementação. Os Estados Unidos e as Comunidades Europeias valeram-se do seu poder de mercado para prover liberalização seletiva, mudar o fórum da propriedade intelectual e impor aos países africanos a escolha entre aderir ou arcar com custos proibitivos de exclusão da OMC, que mantém fechadas áreas de interesse dos países em desenvolvimento, como agricultura. O artigo parodia o título da conhecida obra de Edward Carr, que critica o tratamento liberal da Liga das Nações vinte anos após sua a criação, para desafiar a abordagem liberal da OMC duas décadas após o nascimento do atual regime de comércio.

Palavras-chave


OMC, Liberalismo, Rodada Uruguai, DSU, Poder Institucional, África

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5102/rdi.v11i2.3137

ISSN 2236-997X (impresso) - ISSN 2237-1036 (on-line)

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